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3:03 - Family background

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Partial Transcript: Can you tell us a little bit about your family background, who were your parents?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson describes her father, who worked as a chauffeur and in sales for Corning Inc. and also worked as a laundry truck driver. Hudson's mother primarily was a domestic worker and later became a saleswoman at Harrod Fashion Shop when Hudson was a teenager. Hudson says that her father would shuttle visiting employees from Corning's headquarters in upstate New York from the airport to Harrodsburg. Hudson states that her father was the second person hired at Corning when its Harrodsburg factory first opened in the 1950s. Hudson also mentions that many Black employees worked at Corning, mostly in the cafeteria and on the assembly line in later years when the cafeteria closed. Hudson says her mother briefly worked as a custodian at Corning. Hudson also describes her maternal and paternal grandparents, who hail from Monticello and Springfield, respectively. Hudson adds that she has one brother who works as a pastor.

Keywords: Cars; Family; Harod Fashion Shop (Harrodsburg, Ky.)

Subjects: African Americans; Blacks; Brother; Cafeterias; Chauffeurs; Childhood; Cooking; Corning (N.Y.); Corning Incorporated; Early life; Employees; Father; Grandparents; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Janitors; Laundry; Mercer County (Ky.); Monticello (Ky.); Mother; Springfield (Ky.)

9:15 - Early life

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Partial Transcript: When--what--when were your born, Barbara?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson was born in 1946 in Harrodsburg. Hudson grew up on Broadway in downtown Harrodsburg, close to where both sets of grandparents lived. Hudson says that she lived in a predominantly Black neighborhood and rarely ventured out of the area due to safety concerns when she was a young child. For entertainment, Hudson would play games and have hula hoop contests with her friends in the neighborhood. Hudson says she went roller skating at a local roller rink on Wednesdays, the only day of the week when Blacks were permitted to skate due to segregation. Hudson also mentions that she walked most places since her family only had one car when she was growing up. Hudson recalls that most Black girls her age wanted to straighten their hair when she was a teenager, since this was during the early 1960s prior to the popularity of the Black Power movement and a gravitation towards having pride in naturally curly hair for young Blacks.

Keywords: A.D. Price Hospital (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Broadway (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Childhood home; Doctors; First Baptist Church (Harrodsburg, Ky.)

Subjects: African Americans; Beauty shops; Blacks; Brother; Childhood; Croquet; Dentists; Early life; Education; Father; Food; Friendship; Games; Grandparents; Hair; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Mother; Neighborhoods; Racism; Roller skating; Segregation; Walking

17:44 - Broadway Street in Harrodsburg during childhood / church

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Partial Transcript: Could we go back a minute to Broadway when you were growing up?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson describes what Broadway Street in Harrodsburg was like when she was a child (in the early 1950s). Hudson recalls that there was a grocery store that she walked to near her school. Hudson says that the First Baptist Church on Broadway was a central gathering point for the Harrodsburg Black community. Hudson was baptized at First Baptist, went to Sunday School and sang in the junior choir at First Baptist.

Keywords: Broadway (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Choirs; College Street (Harrodsburg, Ky.); First Baptist Church (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Grocery stores; YMCA

Subjects: African Americans; Baptism; Bible; Blacks; Childhood; Church; Communities; Education; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Schools; Singing; Sunday schools

20:59 - Social activities during childhood

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Partial Transcript: . . . Now, what about the adults, what did they do--uh--for a night out on the town or for fun . . .

Segment Synopsis: Hudson discusses the social activities that she participated in during segregated Harrodsburg in the 1950s. Hudson's father owned a restaurant that served as a hub of social activity for Blacks in Harrodsburg. Hudson explains that Blacks were not permitted to go to Jim's Store (the local soda fountain for whites) due to segregation. Hudson would dance with her friends in the downstairs of the restaurant, while her parents and their friends went to a pool hall next door to the restaurant. Hudson recalls that she would have ice cream at the restaurant on Sundays after church. Hudson briefly mentions blue laws in Mercer County, which prohibited restaurants from selling alcohol until noon on Sundays, which impacted her father's restaurant. Hudson says that the Harrodsburg Black community formed its own social clubs for men and women. Hudson says that the two women's social clubs, the Jolly 17 and the 12 Clouds of Joy, were separated by age, with the older women being members of the Jolly 17. Hudson recalls that both social clubs would put on dances at the armory in Harrodsburg several times a year with lavish decorations and big bands. Hudson adds that most of the social club meetings happened at different member's homes. Hudson recalls that the male social clubs would put on special breakfasts during the holidays.

Keywords: Blue laws; Broadway (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Clouds of Joy Club; Dancing; Forsythe Street (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Jim's Store (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Jolly 17 Club; Lexington Street (Harrodsburg, Ky.); National Guard Armory (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Old Fort Harrod State Park (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Pool halls; Shouse Street (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Social clubs; Wagon Wheel Restaurant (Harrodsburg, Ky.)

Subjects: African Americans; Alcohol; Aunts; Blacks; Childhood; Cooking; Early life; Father; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Holidays; Meetings; Men; Mercer County (Ky.); Mother; Parties; Restaurants; Segregation; Soda fountains; Women

27:05 - Childhood foods and nickname

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Partial Transcript: Talk about the food you said--a lot of cooking going on.

Segment Synopsis: Hudson says that she grew up eating mainly chicken and biscuits and eggs. Hudson learned to bake from her mother, who would often make pies in the afternoons between the two jobs she worked. Hudson remembers coming home to her mother's cooking when she attended beauty school in Paducah. Hudson also mentions that her nickname growing up was "Tink."

Keywords: Breakfast; Country ham; Milk toast

Subjects: African Americans; Bacon; Baking; Beauty schools; Biscuits; Blacks; Butter; Childhood; Cooking; Desserts; Eggs; Fried Chicken; Grandmothers; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Milk; Mother; Nicknames; Oatmeal; Paducah (Ky.); Pancakes; Pies; Sausage

29:50 - Holidays during childhood/childhood home

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Partial Transcript: Now you mention Christmas, what were holidays like--in your household?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson recalls that her father loved Christmas and enjoyed decorating the house full of Christmas trees and lights. Hudson's friends and family would begin to gather on Christmas Eve and her father bought some liquor for the occasion (a rare occurrence in Hudson's family). Hudson briefly talks of her childhood home, which was built by her father using a VA loan when she was six. Hudson's childhood home consisted of three bedrooms, with a living room, kitchen, and one bathroom. Hudson says that Thanksgiving was not as emphasized in her household as Christmas. Hudson's father would go out on Thanksgiving morning and hunt rabbits and make eggs and biscuits with rabbit meat and gravy.

Keywords: Brother; Christmas Eve; House

Subjects: African Americans; Biscuits; Blacks; Childhood; Christmas; Christmas decorations; Christmas trees; Eggs; Father; Grandmothers; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Holidays; Hunting; Mercer County (Ky.); Rabbits; Thanksgiving; Veterans

32:08 - Shopping during childhood/Black baseball league in Harrodsburg

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Partial Transcript: Talk a little bit more about shopping before we get on anything else . . . what shopping did you do here in town--uh--as far as groceries, clothes--

Segment Synopsis: Hudson remembers that her mother would shop for the family's groceries at A&P and later Kroger. Hudson would get her clothes at local stores in Harrodsburg such as Harrod Fashion. Hudson recalls that she got a new Easter outfit for church each year. Hudson describes the Black baseball team in Harrodsburg during her childhood. The team would play at West Lane Park in Harrodsburg and played against other Black baseball teams in surrounding communities. Hudson remembers that families would often bring picnics and bought concessions such as hot dogs and sodas during the baseball games on Sundays.

Keywords: A&P (Firm); Clothes; Cornishville (Ky.); Dresses; First Baptist Church (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Harrod Fashion (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Kroger (Firm); Lincoln Store (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Louisville Store (Harrodsburg, Ky.); West Lane Park (Harrodsburg, Ky.)

Subjects: African Americans; Baseball; Basketball; Blacks; Childhood; Concessions; Early life; Easter; Easter egg hunts; Father; Groceries; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Mother; Picnics; Racism; Referees; Segregation; Shopping; Walking

36:19 - Movies and music during childhood

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Partial Transcript: --Uh--do you--uh--uh--recall any of . . . the--uh--young ladies being in Girl Scouts or Brownies?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson says that she was not allowed to participate in Girl Scouts due to segregation. Hudson would go to the movies on Wednesdays when local businesses gave out free tickets. Hudson attended dances put on by Black social clubs at the Harrodsburg Armory. Hudson recalls that bands played jitterbug and blues style music at the social club dances. Hudson also mentions that women from the three Black churches in Harrodsburg would sing at the dances.

Keywords: Dances; Harrod Theater (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Movies; National Guard Armory (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Social clubs

Subjects: African Americans; Blacks; Cartoons; Childhood; Church; Early life; Girl Scouts; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Music; Musicians; Racism; Segregation

38:40 - Attending West Side School

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Partial Transcript: . . . Where did you start school. Where was first grade for you?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson attended the West Side School in Harrodsburg, the grammar school for Black students during segregation. Hudson enjoyed school because all of the students were Black like her and had shared experiences because of this. Hudson remembers that her first grade class was combined with the second and third grades. Hudson began the day by reciting the Pledge of Allegiance and reading a scripture from the bible. Hudson says that she always got a hot meal from the cafeteria at West Side. Hudson also mentions that students helped the cafeteria workers with cleaning and serving the food. Hudson recalls that the school administered strict methods of discipline and corporal punishment such as spanking. Hudson adds that West Side was well-known for its sports program in the county. Hudson was a member of the cheerleading squad. Hudson had an 8th grade prom and graduation to end her tenure at West Side.

Keywords: 8th Grade Graduation; Classes; Cornishville (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Lunch; West Side School (Harrodsburg, Ky.)

Subjects: African Americans; Basketball; Blacks; Cafeterias; Cheerleading; Childhood; Discipline; Early life; Education; Food; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mascots; Mercer County (Ky.); Mother; Prom; Recess; Schools; Segregation; Sports; Students; Teachers

47:07 - Difficulties and racism experienced at Harrodsburg High School

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Partial Transcript: Tell us how you felt, you were gonna go to Harrodsburg.

Segment Synopsis: Hudson and her classmates at West Side were upset at the prospect of attending Harrodsburg High School, since her older peers had warned the 8th graders of the racist and prejudiced treatment they would receive from their white classmates. Hudson recalls that when she was working on her class reunion, a white class member asked for photos of Hudson from high school. Hudson explained that the Black students were so ostracized that they rarely appeared in the yearbook. Her white classmate then apologized for ostracizing the Black students in high school. Hudson says that being ignored by the white students made the Black students stronger and united them together. Hudson explains that it was more difficult for Black girls to integrate at school, since there were no girls sports at the time. Hudson tried to mingle with whites but her efforts were quickly rebuffed. Hudson also did not participate in very many extracurricular activities because of racism and social segregation. Hudson recalls that she would go to school dances and Black students stayed on one side of the room and whites remained on the other side of the room. Hudson was so frustrated with the school dances that she did not go to her senior prom. Hudson states that Black students who were eligible to be members of the Beta Club were not given the opportunity to join by their teachers. Hudson says that many of her Black classmates refuse to go to class reunions because of how the white students treated them in high school.

Keywords: Class reunion; Harrodsburg High School (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Integration; School dances; West Side School (Harrodsburg, Ky.)

Subjects: African Americans; Blacks; Education; Harrodsburg (Ky.); High school; Mercer County (Ky.); Prejudice; Prom; Racism; Sports; Students; Teenagers

53:03 - Experiences with civil rights at home / memories from March on Frankfort

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Partial Transcript: Politically speaking, do you remember what was going on in your household when there were talks about civil rights and equality?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson says that her father was very supportive of the Civil Rights Movement and political activism. Hudson's father was supportive of her decision to attend the March on Frankfort. Hudson explains that the march was intended to push the Kentucky state legislature to pass a public accommodations bill, which would desegregate public spaces in the state. Hudson attended the march with other students from her church and adult chaperones. Hudson recalls that it was raining and that she had never been in such a large crowd before. Hudson and her church group marched with students she knew from Kentucky State University. Hudson felt safe in her group and did not pay attention to the KKK members protesting the march. Hudson felt that she had a once-in-a lifetime opportunity when she heard Dr. King speak and was thrilled to be a part of the historic event. Hudson adds that her father was more adamant and vocal in his support for civil rights than her mother and that generally speaking, most Black families in Harrodsburg were in favor of the March on Frankfort.

Keywords: Capitol Avenue (Frankfort, Ky.); Civil Rights Act of 1964; First Baptist Church (Frankfort, Ky.); Harrodsburg High School (Harrodsburg, Ky.); March on Frankfort; Martin Luther King Jr.; Politics; Public accommodations

Subjects: African Americans; Blacks; Civil rights; Civil rights movement; Crowds; Equality; Father; Frankfort (Ky.); Harrodsburg (Ky.); High school; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Kentucky State University; Kentucky. General Assembly; Mercer County (Ky.); Nineteen sixties; Segregation; Social justice; Speeches; Students; Teenagers

59:48 - Experiences with segregation / end of March on Frankfort

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Partial Transcript: Had you experienced firsthand discrimination in Harrodsburg or--when you went to Lexington for example . . .

Segment Synopsis: Hudson recalls that lunch counters and clothing stores in Lexington such as Embry's Furs and Lowenthal's were segregated. Hudson explains that most Blacks inherently knew not to enter those high-end stores. Hudson says that the only Black people in the luxury shops were the elevator operators. Hudson explains that she did not attend the March on Frankfort with her parents because they had to work. Hudson remembers there being tension in the crowd when Governor Breathitt did not come out to see the crowd. Hudson says that Governor Breathitt had planned to meet with Dr. King after the march. At the end of the march, the school bus that took Hudson and her church group to the march had to go back to Harrodsburg and make its afternoon route, causing the church group to be stranded without a ride home. Hudson was upset at not having a ride, but several adults who attended the march offered to give the teenagers a ride back to Harrodsburg.

Keywords: Cars; Embry's (Lexington, Ky.); First Baptist Church (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Lowenthal's (Lexington, Ky.); March on Frankfort; Martin Luther King Jr.; Ned Breathitt

Subjects: African Americans; Bands; Blacks; Buses; Church; Civil rights; Civil rights movement; Crowds; Elevator operators; Father; Frankfort (Ky.); Governors; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Kentuckians; Kentucky; Kentucky State University; Lexington (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Music; Nineteen sixties; Parents; Prejudice; Racism; Restaurants; Schools; Segregation; Shopping; Speeches; Teenagers; Transportation

64:07 - Consequences of attending March on Frankfort

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Partial Transcript: Okay, so you come back home, it was what, in the evening?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson recalls the consequences she and her Black classmates faced from attending the March once they returned to school the next day. Hudson explains that the administration at Harrodsburg High School would not accept attending the march as an excused school absence. Hudson was angry because the march was an educational experience, to which the school secretary replied that it was not a necessary event to attend. Hudson called her father, who advised Hudson and the other students who attended the march to stay in the front office while he contacted his friends in the NAACP. Hudson's father was able to use his NAACP connections to get an excused absence for the Black students who attended the march.

Keywords: Excused absences; Harrodsburg High School (Harrodsburg, Ky.); March on Frankfort; Martin Luther King Jr.; NAACP; School absences

Subjects: African Americans; Blacks; Civil rights; Civil rights movement; Education; Father; Frankfort (Ky.); Harrodsburg (Ky.); High school; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Mercer County (Ky.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Prejudice; Racism; School administration teachers; Teachers; Teenagers

66:50 - School integration in Harrodsburg

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Partial Transcript: Were there any incidents--um--in the school system . . . that you let you know that--uh--any--uh--civil rights activity would not be welcome? Was there a burning--

Segment Synopsis: Hudson recalls that when the schools in Harrodsburg segregated in 1956, white parents and students burned a cross in front of Harrodsburg High School. Hudson says that she never really felt welcome at Harrodsburg High School. Hudson said that Black students always traveled in groups while in school because of safety concerns over white students attacking or threatening them.

Keywords: Integration; Intimidation

Subjects: African Americans; Blacks; Education; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Parents; Racism; Safety; Schools; Segregation; Students; Threats

68:32 - Voting / segregation in Harrodsburg

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Partial Transcript: What about your own--um--personal involvement in politics, did you remember when you registered to vote?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson says that she did not feel uncomfortable voting, especially since some of the precinct workers were Black. Hudson recalls being hassled because the polling place was the Mercer County Courthouse, with its visible signs of segregation in the separate water fountains and restrooms. Hudson also remembers that Blacks were forced to stay in one area during the county fair.

Keywords: Fairgrounds; Precinct voters; Voting precincts; Water fountains

Subjects: African Americans; Bathrooms; Blacks; Courthouses; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Racism; Segregation; Voter registration; Voting; Women

70:11 - High school graduation / social clubs during adolescence

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Partial Transcript: ---Tell us about your high school graduation. What happened then?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson recalls that the white and Black students in her class had separate graduation parties. Hudson began to frequent the infamous Cherry Club in Lebanon, Kentucky, a Black music club that had big-name musicians such as Ike and Tina Turner perform there in the 1960s. Hudson enjoyed getting dressed up to go to the Cherry Club and listen to her favorite Motown artists. Hudson says that she went to a Smokey Robinson concert and a concert by the Temptations in Louisville.

Keywords: Club Cherry (Lebanon, Ky.); Dancing; Graduation parties; Harrodsburg High School (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Smokey Robinson; The Temptations (Artist)

Subjects: Adolescence; African Americans; Blacks; Education; Harrodsburg (Ky.); High school; Lebanon (Ky.); Louisville (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Motown Record Corporation; Music; Musicians; Segregation; Social clubs; Songs

73:19 - Life after high school

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Partial Transcript: Okay, what did you do after you graduated--from high school?

Segment Synopsis: After graduating from Harrodsburg High School in the early 1960s, Hudson enrolled at the West Kentucky Vocational School and trained to become a hair stylist. Hudson explains that West Kentucky Vocational School had the only beauty school in the state that would accept Black students. Hudson lived in a dorm on campus and completed her hair stylist training in eleven months. Hudson subsequently moved back to Harrodsburg to apprentice under a hair stylist. After having her son, Hudson took a job at Corning and got married in 1974. Hudson went on to have three other children, including a step-daughter.

Keywords: Hair stylists; Harrodsburg High School (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Hubsband; Son; Step-daughter; West Kentucky Vocational School (Paducah, Ky.)

Subjects: Adolescence; African Americans; Beauty schools; Blacks; Careers; Children; Corning Incorporated; Dorms; Education; Factories; Harrodsburg (Ky.); High School; Marriage; Mercer County (Ky.); Paducah (Ky.); Segregation

75:13 - Husband and children

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Partial Transcript: What does Larry do?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson discusses her husband, Larry, a Vietnam War veteran who works in telecommunications. Hudson had already met her husband after he returned from the war and suffered from PTSD symptoms, including sleep terrors. Later in their marriage, Hudson's husband suffered two heart attacks in two weeks, which she found out were caused by his exposure to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. After marrying her husband, the couple settled in her husband's hometown of Lawrenceburg. Hudson then discusses her children and their lives. One daughter lives in Versailles and works for the state government and her oldest son lives in Florence and works for a communications company. Hudson's middle son lives in Lexington and works for a security company in nearby Wilmore. Hudson's other daughter works for the Kentucky Housing Authority. Hudson worked at Corning for five years before her marriage and subsequently began babysitting when her family moved to Lawrenceburg. Hudson also worked at Texas Instruments in Versailles for twenty-three years before it closed.

Keywords: Husband; Kentucky Housing Authority; Sleep terrors

Subjects: African Americans; Agent Orange; Anderson County (Ky.); Babysitting; Blacks; Corning Incorporated; Daughters; Florence (Ky.); Harrodsburg (Ky.); Health; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Lawrenceburg (Ky.); Lexington (Ky.); Marriage; Mercer County (Ky.); Post-traumatic stress disorder; Sons; State governments; Texas Instruments Incorporated; Trauma; Versailles (Ky.); Veterans; Vietnam War, 1961-1975

78:34 - Legacy of March on Frankfort/career trajectory

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Partial Transcript: Have you remained politically active since your high school days?

Segment Synopsis: Hudson says that being a part of the March on Frankfort motivated her to be politically active as an adult and was a member of the Democratic Women of Lawrenceburg when she lived there. Hudson believes that Dr. King's dream has been partially fulfilled, with more inter-mingling between Blacks and whites today than in the 1960s. In Hudson's view, there is still work that needs to be done in order to have true equality for Blacks. Hudson thinks that young people take for granted the civil rights they have today. Hudson supports her church's efforts to teach children about the contributions of Black Americans to history. Hudson's church began a month-long effort during Black History Month to have the children learn a new lesson about Black history each week, including notable Black athletes. Hudson admits that it is difficult to get people with prejudiced views to change their perspectives on race, but the increase of biracial children in families can help to shift their mindset. Hudson also describes her experiences of working at the Corning factory in Harrodsburg in the late 1960s, which had many Black employees and a good work environment.

Keywords: Biracial people; Black athletes; Black History Month; Centennial Baptist Church (Harrodsburg, Ky.); Democrats; Integration; March on Frankfort; Martin Luther King Jr.; Pastors; Politics

Subjects: African Americans; Blacks; Brother; Children; Church; Civil rights; Civil rights movement; Corning Incorporated; Equality; Frankfort (Ky.); Harrodsburg (Ky.); Identity; Kentuckians; Kentucky; Lawrenceburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Music; Prejudice; Race; Racism; Sports; Texas Instruments Incorporated; Values; Versailles (Ky.); Youth

84:17 - Reaction to election of President Obama / role models

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Partial Transcript: . . . Or how did you feel when--um--President Barack Obama was elected?

Segment Synopsis: When President Obama was elected in 2008, Hudson cried while watching the election returns on TV. Hudson was disappointed in the racist backlash against President Obama throughout his presidency. Growing up, Hudson's father and teachers at the West Side School in Harrodsburg were her most significant role models. Hudson says that her teachers emphasized the message that she could pursue any kind of career as long as she put the effort in to achieve it. Hudson tries to pass this message on to young people she encounters today. Hudson also says that she strives to set a good example for children and models good behavior.

Keywords: 2008 presidential election; Barack Obama; Husband; West Side School (Harrodsburg, Ky.)

Subjects: African Americans; Behavior; Blacks; Crying; Early life; Emotions; Father; Harrodsburg (Ky.); Mercer County (Ky.); Prejudice; Presidents; Racism; Role models; Teachers; Work ethic